History of OSI and TCP/IP Reference Model


OSI Reference Model History Before the concept of Open System interconnection model, networking was managed by the USA government (ARPAnet) and French government (CYCLADES) and some few organizations like IBM and Digital Equipment Corporation. System Network Architecture and DECnet was developed by IBM and DEC respectively. As an experiment in 1973, a new package was used and with that, the need for new protocols was felt.


These new protocols needed to be on a higher level than the previous and in the meeting on ISO in Sydney in 1977, UK pitched this idea and the International Standardization (ISO) took heed, along with international Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) it started developing a program and protocols. Both of these organizations developed a similar kind of program separately. The OSI model was first introduced by Hubert Zimmerman in 1978 in Washington DC and the standard version came out in 1984. It had an abstract model of networking which was known as the Seven layers model or the Basic Reference Model whose credits goes to Charles Bachman of Honeywell Information System.


TCP/IP Reference Model History Everyone is familiar with and have studied about the cold war and how the tension between the 2 superpower countries grew because of the threat of a nuclear war that could be the result of it and could end in disaster bigger than the humankind had ever seen. Having used nuclear bomb itself in world war 2, USA was knew how catastrophic a nuclear attack could be and to tackle the situation if it becomes inevitable, it came up with a few solutions and ARPAnet was one of them, created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which was run on the protocol called NCP.


ARPAnet was designed as a network that will keep the military-connected in case the country is under a nuclear attack from the USSR, the only country strong enough to go to war against the USA with the possibility of winning. NCP could not meet the requirements to keep a wide network connected and working properly the first mention of Transmission Control Protocol was in Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn's paper ‘A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection', which was published in 1974. In 1978, a new set of the protocol was developed which was name Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and from 1st January 1983 it replaced NCP as the standard language of ARPAnet and has been catering to the growing need of the networking field without the need to be replaced by another protocol

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