Over- Exploitation of Resources are the Major Cause of Biodiversity Loss


Biodiversity refers to all varieties of living things on this earth from genes to the ecosystem. There are established chains where varieties of life are directly or indirectly dependent upon each other. Extinction of any living species is having a pernicious effect on the entire ecosystem. The concept of sustainable development has evolved which means meeting the present need without over-exploitation of nature and without compromising with the need for future generations. Albeit we are the generation facing the worst environmental crisis in past history. Mining is one of the causes of biodiversity loss which means the extraction of gems and minerals from the earth.


Destruction of ecological balance and habitat are irreparable damages caused due to mining disasters such as the Aberfan disaster (1966), Monongah Mine disaster (1907), Sago Mine Disaster (2006), Upper Big Branch Mine disaster (2010), Pike River Mine disaster (2010), 2014 Soma Mine Explosion and many other created pernicious effect on the environment including erosion, loss of biodiversity and contamination of soil and ground waters. The gas leak seems to be innocuous but it adversely affects the living things. It is the unpalatable fact that gas leaks are preventable man-made disasters that cause tremendous amounts of death and biodiversity loss. The common reason behind such gas tragedies is casual moments of laziness, lack of training, lack of equipment facilities.


Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984) was the most lethal gas leak due to leakage of methyl isocyanide(MIC). Aliso Canyon Gas leak(2015), Bhilai Steel Plant Gas leak (2014, 2018), a Gas leak in China (2011), Iran Gas leak (2017), and recently Visakhapatnam Gas leak (2020). There are various other man-made disasters such as oil spills, nuclear meltdown, industrial fires, and many others. One of the worst oil spills was the Deepwater Horizon Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) which was having a ruinous effect on the environment along with the Castillo de Bellver (1983), Odyssey Oil Spill (1988), Gulf War Oil Spill(1991), Ixtoc 1 Oilwell(1979).


Nuclear Meltdown in Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986), 3 Mile Island Nuclear Explosion (1979) were among the most devastating nuclear meltdowns which erroneously affected the environment. Recently, the Baghjan Fire Disaster on 9th June 2020 in Assam is having a terrible impact on Dibru Saikhowa National Park. This disaster was another case of negligence by the human being. Climate change adversely affected biodiversity and animals and plants are having their own favorable climate for survival.


The reasons behind the climatic changes are greenhouse gas concentrations, volcanic eruption, and various other man-made and natural reasons. Bushfires in Australia (2020) was because of the hot and windy conditions along with drought which caused irreparable damage. The most affected animals were Kangaroo Island dunnart, Glossy black cockatoo, Koala, Regent honeyeater, Quokka, greater glider, and various other animals and living species. The animals which were listed endangered in the IUCN red list due to climate change are - Polar Bear (Urus maritime), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), Tiger( Panthera tigris), Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), Butterfly(Danaus plexippus), Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia Mydas), Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).





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