What is Database Management System-DBMS
A Database Management System(DBMS) is a system software designed to manage, store and retrieve a large chunk of data. Its managerial expertise lies on maintaining huge data systematically with consistency and accuracy.
Management is very crucial when it comes to filter and arrange data. Database management is that technical help provided to the targeted audience, from single users to programmers. Data simply can be defined as facts and statistics in a raw form of its circulation. For example, if a calculation is to be performed by the computer, simply entering the digits 2+2 is nothing but unprocessed data. Likewise, the result displayed as 4 is an information that is nothing but processed data. Before the invention of specific data related tools, the only way to stored bulky data was on tapes. The disadvantage to such storage was it cannot be re-read, retrieve or filter as per own convenience. That made the computer scientist to go for some real technical data management tool. That’s how Database management came into exist.
Database management can be categorized into different types. Some of them are-
- Relational database management system (RDMS) As the name suggests, in this database management system each row and column in the cell is based on a relation. Here, the data is stored in a tabular form where each column in the table represents an attribute and each row represents a record. Attributes are characteristics in DBMS, whereas records contain fields with specific information. Each field in a table represents a data value. Relational database represents each table uniquely presenting the information contain in a row, thereby helping the key fields to connect one table of data to another conveniently. Some of the famous relational databases are- Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, SQLite and IBM DB2.
Advantages of relational database system are-
- No special training or experience involves understanding of the RDMS. It is as simple as analyzing the data contain in each field. Here the data management is done keeping the relation of each row and column describing specific information.
- The entries in the database here can be modified or change without specifying the entire body of the content. This makes the data present, independent of the changes occurring.
- RDBM’s allows for multiple access to different database users simultaneously. It prevents data collusion among different users, updating the records.
- RDBM provides network access through a specialized software program that receives the request on a network and allows database clients to connect to and use the database.
- SQL called as Structured Query Language is a language supported by RDBMS that uses standard English language keywords.
- Properties of RDBM includes- values being atomic, each row to be alone, column values are the same thing, sequence of rows is insignificant and lastly each column has a common name.
- Hierarchical Database management system(HDMS)- The word hierarchy which means arranged in order of ranks has similar meaning when put in the form of a database. In the hierarchical model, data is being presented in a canvas of parent-children relationship nodes. Here, besides the actual data records, the information about their groups of parent / child relationships is also mention. The data structured here is in the form of a family tree where each data is stored in form of collection of fields where each field contains only one value. The links in the field are established through a hierarchical database model, each child record has only one parent and a parent can have multiple children. In order to retrieve the data, one needs to travel through each and every tree until the record is found. The inception of the of the HDMS dated back to early 1960s by IBM. The example of hierarchical database are- IBM Information Management System (IMS) and Windows Registry.
Advantage of Hierarchical Database management system are as follows-
- HDMS have great speed and accuracy because of which the data accessed can be updated rapidly. Because of its tree structure model, the relationship between the records are well defined in advance.
- Big organizations need to manage data for diverse tasks that needs proper management and accuracy. The hierarchical structure divides these areas of concern into various concern departments through configuration and specialization. The specialization in turn allows organizations to concentrate on particular efficiency thereby increasing the speed.
Disadvantage of Hierarchical database management system
- These structure lack quick adaptability. Organizations that cannot cop up with the fast pacing market demands as well as technology are often considered useless. Lack of communication often occur in HDMS as hierarchical organization tend to commute vertically.
- Object oriented model of database (OODBM)- It refers to the functionality of the programming that are object oriented. Object oriented model of database increase the semantics of C++ and Java. The feature includes programming capability, while keeping intact the native language compatibility. This approach can also be referring to as object functionality in programming languages. The object oriented database is a derivation from the object oriented programming language consistent system. It’s a chain of elements that contain consistent data as found in the database and also the transient data found in executing programs. The objective model uses small software called the objects that contains data such as sound, video, text and instructions for what to do with the data. Their inception was in early 1980s
Some of the famous OODBM are Tornado, Gbase, Versant object database etc.
Advantages of object oriented databases are –
- The far reaching ability of mixing and providing the reusable objects that provides incredible multimedia capability is the most important feature of OODBM.
Disadvantages of object oriented databases are-
- These are the most expensive database to develop and update. Most of the organizations find it difficult and inconvenient to abandon and convert from those databases
Network Database (ND)- An advancement to hierarchical database model is what is called network base database management system. It was designed to overcome the technical loopholes of the hierarchical database. Instead of allowing each child to have one parent, this database model allows each children to have multiple parent thereby terming the parent as owner and the child as member. The purpose of this database is to go deeper into the complex relationships such as the orders, parts as mentioned in the hierarchical model. The difference between each child or member can have is that they can have more than one of it. A network base database management system looks like a web of interconnected network of records. The organization of data in the network database management system is in the form of many to many relationships. Some of the popular examples of network databases are Integrated data store(IDS), Raima database manager, TurboIMAGE, Univac DmS- 1100 etc.
Advantages of network database system-
- The network model of database management system is conceptually simple and easy to design, just like the hierarchical model. It is also capable of handling one to many as well as many to many relationships which is really appreciable in modelling real life situations.
- The network model of database maintains the data integrity by not allowing a member to exist without an owner.
- The Data independence maintained in case of network model is better and convenient in case of complex physical storage details.
Disadvantages of network database system-
- The records stored in this model are maintained using different pointers and hence the whole system of storage structure becomes very complex. Also because of the presence of different number of pointers, the insertion, deletion and updating becomes very tedious.
- Structural changes to the database is very difficult in case of network database model because of the absence of structural independence.
Graph model of database management system- This particular model of database uses structured graphs in the database with nodes, edges and properties to represent and store data. This relationship allow data to be linked directly with collection of nodes of data as well as edges representing the relationship between the nodes. Portraying relationship within a graph database is fast and accurate as they are perpetually stored within the database itself. They are a part of the NoSQL databases to overcome the loopholes of the relational database system. Graph model of database management system are designed especially for the fast retrieval of the complex hierarchical structures. The storage capacity of the graph model of database management system depends upon relational engine and a table.
Advantages of graph model of database management system-
- Graph model of database can easily store large chunk of scaling data sometimes for useful for the organizations that generate more and more data. In modern times social media, fraud detection, forensic analysis all use graphs to process highly connected data.
Disadvantages of Graph model of database management system-
- If the connection between the data and attributes are not classify then graph database can be of no help. Example – if the query is based on only one datatype then the aggregate result will also be of one data type.
- ER Model of database management system- ER model refers to as the entity model of database management system. Here the data is being represented using entity relationship diagram. The main attributes of this database model are; entity set and the relationship set. An entity is a group of similar entities that may have attributes of their own. In terms of database model, an entity consists of a table or attribute which shows the relationship among tables and their attributes. There are various types of attributes in the ER model of database management model that are simple attribute which are atomic values that cannot be divided further. for example- a student date of birth. Composite attribute occurs when more than one simple attribute exists. Derived attribute are the ones that do not exist in the physical or real database but their values are derived from the other attributes present in the database.
Advantages of ER model of database management system
- Conceptually because of the presence of relationship between the entities and attributes, it is very easy to derive the ER model of database. Being the logical representation of the diagram it is very much easy to understand the relation among entities and relationship.
- It is an effective tool of communication which is efficiently design.
- ER model of database can be easily converted into another data model like hierarchical model because of its easy convertibility feature.
Disadvantage of ER model of database management system-
- Data manipulation cannot be carried out in case of ER model of database management system.
- ER model of representation represents limited relationship as compared to another data models like relational model of database management system.
- In case of ER model of database management system, few information remains hidden because of which it is very difficult to fully rely on this model for accuracy and consistency.
Benefits of using a database management system
As explained above database management system is highly efficient when it comes to storing of large chunk of data files with utmost secrecy and accuracy. Filtering, insertion, deletion as well as updating data are some of the benefits of using a database management system. Reduction of data redundancy is one of the prominent feature of database management system. As large files are being stored by different organizations in one go, database management system helps in non-duplicity of files stored. Database management system also helps in maintaining the data integrity of the files stored. It is highly accurate and security proven in nature. Database management system also takes care of the backup and recovery. the users in that case do not need to backup files periodically. In modern times, the Block chain technology is a replica of database management system where the storage of virtually traded currencies and coins are being taken care of.