Snake game in python - an interesting project using simple lines of code - A complete guide on all stages of the python snake game
We would have come across the snake game in every mobile phone that was conventionally used in earlier days. The game is to make the snake eat its food and help it score a lot of points at the maximum. If it hits the screen, then the player loses the game, or he can continue playing. We have not wondered how these games came into the real picture.
It is something called gaming using programming. Any of the programming languages can be used to automate gaming. One such language is python. Games in Python are created using a package called pygame.
This pygame package is available in Google Chrome and can be downloaded very easily, from the web, by copying and pasting the pip Install commands in the terminal of the programming window.
This is how the packages can be imported and used. So, gaming packages are very important to enable any game in a particular programming language. Also, in this creation of the snake game using Python programming language. The Pygame package plays an important role. Packages are nothing but the collection of predefined classes of a programming language for them to be used and imported later in the program. Some are built-in and some are user-defined. Creating games can be interesting and different.
STAGES IN BUILDING A GAME:
Building a game using a programming language is not very easy. Many things have to be done to proceed with many other things. The first important thing is the game screen. After which the objects are put on the game screen. Every event of player must be notified. Score corresponding to the events of the players should be displayed on the screen.
Attempts of the player must be tracked every single time. This is when the game decides if the player has won the game or has lost the game.
This article discusses how to build a snake game
There are multiple stages for a game.
1. Setting up the screen:
This is the place in which all the gaming objects are put. The screen should have a distinct height and weight. Only then the gaming objects are visible clearly, on the screen. Setting up the correct dimensions is very important, so as, not to confuse the player where the gaming object is. Example: The players should neither search for the snake nor the food. Both objects
should be there in their correct positions. The positions of both objects should be distinct.
So, it is very important to set up the correct coordinates of the objects. Only then, the objects can fit into the screen, and make them visible clearly to the players who are
Accordingly, the score is displayed.
The game screen can either be initialized or un-initialized. Using init() and quit() functions in python. We know that the screen is never going to be constant. Changes are updated every single time when the player plays the game. So, there is a function called update every single change happening on the screen. There's another function called flip. This is used to completely renew the update function.
To display the screen, there is a function in Pygame which is called display set mode. Detecting the events of the player and displaying them on the screen is done throughout the game. That is until the game gets over and the player loses the game, every action of his has to be printed. There is a need for a LOOP here in the program, for printing the events until the
game stops. Also, you can give different titles that you wish for your game.
2. Create gaming objects:
The gaming objects play a vital role. Any gaming object used in a particular game cannot be as such put on a screen. It is the same as setting up the screen with the correct dimensions.
This means the gaming objects also do have distinct widths and heights, also they have to be filled with different colors for the players to get attracted when playing. So, it is important to first initialize a few color variables to color every single gaming object. The range for which the colors can be set using the color scheme can be from 0 to 255 which can be from black to
white. According to the color scheme in Pygame. The pattern has to be RGB which is red,
green, and blue. This will by default create a shape name rectangle as the initial single
point of the gaming object. The users can put their desired color and size further.
3. Adjustment controls:
Every game has two parts. One player wins and the other player loses. All this can be calculated based on the scores of the player who's playing. If he scores more than a particular score point, he's declared to be the winner or if he loses somewhere in between the game then he's considered to be a loser. Also, despite the player winning the game, the game has to stop somewhere and come to an end. This is called the end part or the quit part of the game. So, in the program, there is a keyword called which has been set for finishing the game at a specific point.
4. Moving the objects:
There is a transformation or a change in the game screen when a gaming object shifts
from one place to another place. For example, the screen color can be made to change when the objects start themselves to move. The moving of the gaming objects can be controlled by the arrow case on our keyboard.
The four different directions can determine how a gaming object should be moved on a particular gaming screen. They are left, right, top, and bottom out of which left and top are emphasized to be in reverse directions that are negative values. So, normal variables are assigned and are declared with some initial values, also, there are changed variables after each movement. Since every movement makes the game score points the values of the normal
variables are incremented with changed variables. Color changes can be done using
the fill(). These are the built-in methods. Changing the object’s position is very important when coming to designing a particular game. Only that creates a major difference.
5. Game stops when hitting the boundaries:
Once the snake moves out of the boundary of the entire screen means that the player has
lost the game, the boundary of the screen is nothing but a range that is specified within which
the gaming object has to be present. So, if the gaming object crosses the specified boundary, then the game has to be stopped and returned. This also means an ‘if’ statement has to be
specified that defines the limit for the x and y coordinates of the gaming object to be less than
the screen or equal to that of the screen. Boundaries are necessary for every game, they are the obstacles that can stop the player and so the player can quit the game at a point in
Without boundaries, the game shall run in-finitely and there is no logic in playing the designed game only by constantly scoring points.
There shall also be no chance to quit, finish and edit the game if he/she keeps playing the game without any hindrances. So, boundaries are the ranges that are created that can prohibit the movement of the player of the game, in case the movement made by him/her is invalid or unacceptable. Boundaries create a range for any game.
6. Making changes in the dimensions:
When it comes to snake games, after every time, the snake consumes the food and the length of the snake must be increased. This idea makes use of a storage variable called LIST, which has all values to be appended later to the original value. In this case, the game is built in such a way that, the snake is initially a very small rectangle object and is constantly becoming larger, every time, it consumes the food. This is how the dimension of the gaming, objects should be changed so that they can make difference in the game.
7. Displaying the scoreboard:
This is the last stage of the game that tells the overall potential of the player who had played
the game so far. The text font and the color of the text “YOUR SCORE” can be customized based on the user's wish and need, and then, the total points for the game played so far are displayed on the screen. One important point to note is that the score value is ‘length of the snake minus 1’ because the initial stage of the snake that did not consume any food is neglected in this case. Scores mean the points secured at a level.
This is how a game is created, step by step.
Especially when it comes to coding and gaming, it involves a lot of lines, thereby rectifying every single line depending on the requirements of the players who play the game, only then there is an interest and attraction for playing the game.
Also, people cannot look into every simple operation that is there in the code, because, gaming can involve very large-sized code, and analyzing every single operation can be difficult to detect bugs.
So, the programmers make note of the BASIC OPERATION and count how many times it is
getting executed, so that errors can be filtered out easily and the code can be reviewed in the
future without any difficulty.
Examples can include:
Size increased – when dragging the scroll bar
Size decreased – when dragging the scroll bar
Popping up of a new window when a button is
Press the x button for a window to get deactivated.
All these are events that can happen after the actions that the users do, so the agent that listens to what users do is called LISTENER, to which every event is delegated gradually and
A source – generates and initiates any event
A listener – takes care and responds to the event
The code that embeds the event handling is called EVENT HANDLER. This type of code is
placed within or outside the class or just kept anonymous. So, event handling is the main idea
used in this game. So, some sources and listeners can generate the actions and respond accordingly to create every single event.
Event handling can support to its best when it comes to windows, systems, buttons, games and
other such components.
STEPS IN SHORT FOR FUTURE ENHANCEMENT:
Installing the pygame package
Creating the game screen
Creating the gaming objects
Making the objects move
Increasing the length of the object.
Stopping the game when the gaming object hits the limits – boundaries
Displaying the current score of the player.
Formulas for screen display dimensions, snake dimensions before consuming food, the color of the message to be displayed on the screen, and snake dimensions after consuming food are all calculated. The movement of the snake in the reverse directions (at the bottom and left) is emphasized as negative (-) and in the forward directions (at the top and right) are positive (+)
x1 = dis_width/2
y1 = dis_height/2
x1_change = 0
y1_change = 0
mesg = font_style.render(msg, True, color)
x1_change = -snake_block
y1_change = 0
x1_change = snake_block
y1_change = 0
y1_change = -snake_block
x1_change = 0
y1_change = snake_block
x1_change = 0
x1 += x1_change
y1 += y1_change
Event handling is used widely. For example simply pressing the x button on the top of a window requires an agent to listen to the click that the users do and then events happen later respectively to the
action that is done. This is a kind of RESPONSE that is created. Windows, keys, mouse, etc... can be involved in any event creation and generation of the response. Every component and container that is present in the game must be registered with a listener for it to get notified when the user does some action. This requires great planning and construction, and it is not that easy even for a well-versed programmer to design a game simply, but then it requires a lot of time and effort to start and finish the game project.
Only basic the requirement is the available packages and modules to implement the game promptly and make it even more amusing, diverting, and entertaining.
Also, one of the most important points when it comes to designing a game is that the player must feel pleasant and agreeable when he/she plays the game. Any game should undergo the below 4 principles as follows, only the game can be regarded as substantial and appreciable.
The game Principles - Playing, Rewards, Security, Constraint
Playing – How is the game taken over by the player?
Rewards – Awards and prizes designated when there is an achievement in the game
Security – Trusting the game that it never leads to addiction.
Constraint – simple but steady game rules.
So, it is predominant to design the rules and principles of the game in such a way that the
player should agree to them and proceed to play. Only then, the game can be legal.